Answer: Political communication concerns the creation and exchange of ideas and opinions between citizens, public officials, political institutions, and related entities, such as the media. It includes discourse throughout the political process in local, state, national, and international political systems, as well as how political information can be leveraged for political gain or to achieve political goals. Individuals with an education in political communication might work in political consulting, foreign service, market research, public relations, journalism and digital media, community organization, lobbying, political campaigning, or other related fields.
At its most basic, political communication is the dialogue between political organizations (e.g. political parties), political actors (e.g. elected officials), the media, and private citizens. It is an interdisciplinary field that blends the social sciences, strategic communication, and media studies with politics and government. Political communication techniques and strategies allow policy advocates, public relations officers, speechwriters, campaign executives, political consultants, political marketers, elected officials and other political professionals to create, shape, and distribute messages that can influence the political process. Political messaging can take many forms, including speechwriting, social and online media, television and radio, interpersonal communication between candidates and prospective voters, policy studies, press releases, and more.
Additionally, political communication is also a field of research in academia. Professionals in this area study the relationship between the three processes of political communication: production (how messages are developed and transmitted), content (what is contained in each message), and effect (how messages are received and interpreted). For example, political communication scholars might examine how governments justify accessing and recording private citizen’s online personal information (e.g. ISP addresses) as a form of mass communication monitoring, or how social media is blurring the boundaries of private and public communication regarding political beliefs and attitudes. Another potential avenue of inquiry might be the relationship between speeches made by politicians regarding job development or educational system improvements and their influence on certain populations of voters
|Featured Online Master's in Political Communication Programs|
|Johns Hopkins University||Online Master of Arts in Communication with an Optional Concentration in Political Communication|
Master’s in Political Communication Programs
Master’s in political communication programs introduce students to the fundamental concepts, theories, and processes behind political discourse, as well as a comprehensive understanding of the psychological mechanisms and strategies that govern the creation and dissemination of political messages across different media channels. They also tend to focus on how political processes, institutions, and platforms operate at different levels of government. Students can expect to develop skills in quantitative analysis of political data (e.g. isolating voter tendencies), qualitative data analysis (e.g. implementing public opinion surveys on local policies), strategic communication techniques (e.g. news, speech, and press release writing), social media strategies (e.g. creating political marketing campaigns), and more.
Coursework in a political communication master’s program generally covers topics across the political spectrum, including campaign management, public opinion research, speechwriting, political media strategies, public affairs and advocacy, media and foreign policy, political ethics and law, public discourse, and statistical analysis. The majority of political communication programs concentrate on applied skill development in political communication and strategy. However, there are programs with a greater educational emphasis on communication research that prepare students to continue their studies at the doctoral level. These types of programs may include coursework that allows students to explore historical partisanship in mainstream newspapers, examine strategic messaging in times of political crisis, consider the credibility of online and cable political news coverage, or apply theories of behavioral psychology to develop new political advertising techniques to sway voter attitudes, to name just a few examples.
For more information about master’s in political communication programs, including example course plans and degree requirements, please refer to our Master’s in Political Communication Programs page.
Careers in Political Communication
A degree in political communication can lead to potential career opportunities across the political spectrum, in areas such as politics, government, public affairs and public policy, legislative affairs, lobbying, media, political research and analysis, and more. Individuals with a graduate education in political communication might pursue careers with legislative think tanks, local-, state-, and national-based political party organizations, political campaigns, media organizations and publishers, non-profits, public relations firms, political consulting agencies, social advocacy groups, or other organizations that work within the political process.
Effective communicators are vital to the political process, helping to contextualize understanding of issues at all levels of discourse. They are central players, who help politicians run for office, develop policies and legislation for the social good, educate the general public on socio-political issues, and promote greater participation in democracy. Career options vary, but here are a few potential career paths graduates of master’s programs in political communication might consider:
- Campaign Strategist: Campaign strategists use their knowledge of local, state, national, and international politics; the social issues facing different sectors of the American population; effective campaign media; and speech writing to plan and implement political campaign strategies. Campaign strategists might work for a specific politician seeking election, or be employed by a political party, independent non-profit, or for-profit organization to help develop campaign materials for a particular political or social cause.
- Government Press Secretary: Press secretaries manage public relations for government organizations, including local, state, and federal entities. They develop relationships with journalists and media outlets, as well as write and edit press releases and update news outlets on certain events or political developments that are relevant to the public. Using political communication tactics, they tailor their messaging to the public in order to maintain transparency while also staying consistent with their employers’ desired public image.
- Political Journalist: Political journalists conduct investigations of social and political issues that are of interest to the public, and write articles on their findings. Their mission is to both inform the public and hold local, state, and federal governments accountable for their actions.
- Government Communication Director: Communication directors promote the political agendas and craft the public image of organizations that employ them through careful strategies, including speech writing and editing, media campaigns, and collaborations with policy makers to develop announcements of new legislation or government programs.
- Lobbyist: Working on behalf of multinational corporations, universities, community organizations, or other groups, lobbyists develop relationships with elected officials at the local, state, and national level to promote legislation that is beneficial to their employer’s interests.
- College Professor: Political communication professors teach undergraduate- and graduate-level courses at both four-year universities and community or junior colleges. In addition to working with students, they often conduct original research or write scholarly articles on topics in political communication, with the intent to advance theory or scholarship in the field.